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Lesson 8: Epilogue I

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Grammar review: Lesson 5

Lesson 5 was the time-telling lesson, remember? We learned how to tell the time in German and how to use adverbs of time and frequency in a sentence.

Everything that gives you information about when or how often something happens will from now on be called "information of time". An information of time can be the time of the day, the day of the week, a month, a year, or words like 'often', 'rarely', etc...


1) Word order in sentences with information of time

Remember that in German, we can position an information of time either at the beginning of the sentence or in the middle of the sentence. For example:

1) Jede Woche (every week) gehe ich schwimmen.
I go swimming every week.
Information of time (blue) at the beginning.

OR:

2) Ich gehe jede Woche schwimmen.
I go swimming every week.
Information of time (blue) in the middle of the sentence.

The following rule described the sentence order in a sentence with an information of time:
RULE: When the information of time is placed at the very beginning of a sentence, the subject and the main-verb switch their positions.
time - 1st verb - subject - direct object/2nd verb

When you want to place the information of time in the middle of the sentence, place it right behind the first verb of the sentence or, if you want to stress this information of time in particular, place it behind the direct object of the sentence.
subject - 1st verb - time - direct object/2nd verb
OR:
subject - 1st verb - direct object/2nd verb - time


2) Reflexive verbs

We also talked about reflexive verbs and that these verbs need a reflexive pronoun as their direct object. The reflexive pronouns in German were:
PersonSingularPlural
1stmich
(myself)
uns
(ourselves)
2nddich
(yourself)
euch
(yourselves)
3rdsich
(him/her/itself)
sich
(themselves)


3) Word order in sentences with reflexive verbs and information of time

Brfore we do some exercises: Remember that when you have a reflexive pronoun, which sort of acts like a direct object, and you have the information of time in the middle of the sentence, the only allowed constellation of the sentence is:
subject - 1st verb (reflexive verb) - direct object (reflexive pronoun) - time
Thus, never put the information of time between a reflexive verb and its reflexive pronoun!


Exercise
Build complete and correct German sentences by using the following German fragments. Always put the information of time in the middle of the sentence.

Example:
die Decke - streicht - am Donnerstag - mein Vater
Mein Vater streicht am Donnerstag die Decke.
OR:
Mein Vater streicht die Decke am Donnerstag.


move mouse over ?-fields
for correct answers
1) Ich - mich - morgens - dusche
?
2) Michael und Hannes - Frisbee - um drei Uhr - spielen
?
3) spielt - unser Hund - immer - mit Karin (with Karin)
?


Exercise
This time, build a comlete German sentence by putting the information of time at the beginning of the sentence.

Example:
jede Woche - wir - den Rasen - mähen
Jede Woche mähen wir den Rasen.

move mouse over ?-fields
for correct answers
1) Erwin und Klaus - Bier - trinken - oft
?
2) geht - sonntags - Heinz - laufen
?
3) Er - nie - rasiert - selten.
?




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