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Lesson 8: Epilogue I

Page 9 of 9 previous       vocabularies section

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Grammar review: Lesson 7

Congratulations: You have reached the last content-page of this first German course: "German for Beginners".
Here, we want to review quickly this course's last lesson (Lesson 7). The following topics were of importance:



1) Indefinite articles

The indefinite articles in German are:
casemasculinefeminineneuter
nominative ein eine ein
accusative einen eine ein

Note that the accusative once again only affects the masculine/singular article and that there are no indefinite articles in the plural.

2) Plural

The plural in German is very irregular for almost every single noun. Some plural nouns end in "s", some in "en", "el", "er" or "e". There are very few rules and guidelines for forming the plural in German. The following things might help you though:

- The definite article of the plural is always "
die
". Thus, the gender of a noun
in
  the plural does not matter. There is no indefinite article
in
  the plural (same as
in
  English).

- Most plural nouns have an "e"
in
  their ending (e.g. "
die
  Augen", "
die
  Hunde", "
die
  Hemden").

- Feminine singular nouns that end
in
  "e", usually form the plural by simply adding an "
n
" (e.g. "
die
  Banane" => "
die
  Bananen").

- Some nouns change their stem
in
  the plural to an umlaut (e.g. "
der
 
Mann
" => "
die
  Männer").

3) Possessive pronouns in the plural

casemasculinefeminineneuterplural
nominative dein deine dein deine
accusative deinen deine dein deine

Note that once again, the only situation, where the accusative is different from the nominative is masculine/singular. Also, all plural possessive pronouns are the same as the feminine/singular possessive pronouns.

4) Adjective Endings

Finally, we talked about adjective endings, in cases where the adjective stands between an article or possessive pronoun and a noun.
Look at the following examples, which summarize all the rules connected with adjective endings.

A) Definite articles (singular) => ending always "e"
- Der grüne Pullover kostet zwanzig Euros. (The green sweater costs 20 Euros)
- Die grüne Jacke kostet dreißig Euros. (The green jacket costs 30 Euros)
- Das grüne Hemd kostet zehn Euros. (The green shirt costs 10 Euros)


B) Indefinite articles or possessive pronouns (singular) => ending "er", "e" or "es" depending on gender
- Ein grüner Pullover kostet zwanzig Euros. (A green sweater costs 20 Euros)
- Meine grüne Jacke kostet dreißig Euros. (My green jacket costs 30 Euros)
- Dein grünes Hemd kostet zehn Euros. (Your green shirt costs 10 Euros)


C) Plural => ending behind article or possessive pronoun "en"; without article/possessive pronoun "e"
- Die grünen Hemden (pl.) kosten zehn Euros. (The green shirts cost 10 Euros)
- Unsere grünen Pullover (pl.). (Our green sweaters)
- Seine grünen Jacken (pl.). (His green jackets)
- Grüne Jacken (pl.) kosten dreißig Euros. (Green jackets cost 30 Euros)


D) Accusative (only masculine/singular) => ending always "en"
- Ich mag deinen grünen Pullover nicht. (I don't like your green sweater)
- Du willst einen grünen Pullover kaufen? (You want to buy a green sweater?)
- Wir gehen in den grünen Park. (We are going to the green park)


E) Cases like "Es ist ...", "Du bist ..." etc ... => no adjective-endings
- Das Buch ist grün. (The book is green; no adjective-ending)
- Sein Auto ist grün. (His car is green; no adjective-ending)

That's it! Now you can either repeat the vocabularies from the entire course in the vocabulary section of this epilogue or do some exercises, which will be another opportunity for you to repeat the entire grammar and vocabularies from this course.


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pages 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9        vocabularies       Exercises [A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H]

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